Methods Common to All Objects

Each of Object's nonfinal methods have a general contract that should be upheld since they are meant to be overridden. These nonfinal methods include::

  • equals
  • hashCode
  • toString
  • clone
  • finalize (but you shouldn't even use this one. avoid finalizers and cleaners.)

Obey the general contract when overriding equals

First, don't even override equals if any of the following apply:

  1. Each instance of the class is inherently unique (like an enum)
  2. There is no need for the class to provide a "logical equality" test. For example, two differnet instances of a Point object that have the same x and y value would be "logically equal".
  3. A superclass has already overriden equals and the superclass behavior is appropriate for your subclass.
  4. The class is private or package-private, and you are certain that its equals method will never be invoked.

Override equals if the following applies:

  1. The class does have a notion of logical equality that differs from object identity. This is generally true for value classes.
  2. The superclass doesn't already override equals.
  3. The class (value class or not) does NOT use instance control to ensure that at most one object exists with each value, e.g., enum types. For these classes, logical identity is the same as object identity.

The equals method has a general contract:

  • Reflexive. x.equals(x) must be true.
  • Symmetric. if x.equals(y) if and only if y.equals(x) (if y and x are both non-null).
  • Transitive. if x.equals(y) and y.equals(z), then x.equals(z) must be true.
  • Consistent. calling x.equals(y) multiple times will always return the same answer.
  • Non-nullity. if x is non-null, then x.equals(null) must be false.

If you violate the equals contract, you simply don't know how other objects will behave when confronted with your object.

A lot of trouble occurs across classes. Take for example the String class, and another class we define, CaseInsensitiveString for which we implement equals and which isn't a subclass of String.

// An example of breaking the Symmetry requirement

public final class CaseInsensitiveString {
    public boolean equals(Object o) {
        if (o instanceof CaseInsensitiveString) {
            return s.equalsIgnoreCase(((CaseInsensitiveString) o).s);
        } else if (o instanceof String) {
            return s.equalsIgnoreCase((String) o);
        return false;

CaseInsensitiveString cis = new CaseInsensitiveString("Polish");
String s = "polish";

cis.equals(s) // true
s.equals(cis) // false -- not symmetric!

A lot of trouble occurs across inheritance. There is no way to extend an instantiable class and add a value component while preserving the equals contract. Take for example a Point class and a ColorPoint subclass.

// An example of breaking the Transitivity requirement

public class Point {
    private final int x;
    private final int y;
    public booelan equals(Object o) {
        if (!(o instanceof Point)) {
            return false;
        Point p = (Point) o;
        return p.x == x && p.y == y;

public class ColorPoint extends Point {
    private final Color color;

    public boolean equals(Object o) {
        if (!(o instanceof Point)) {
            return false;

        // If o is a normal Point do a color-blind comparison
        if (!(o instanceof ColorPoint)) {
            return o.equals(this);

        // Assume o is a ColorPoint, do a fll comparison
        return super.equals(o) && ((ColorPoint) o).color == color;

ColorPoint p1 = new ColorPoint(1, 2, Color.RED);
Point p2 = new Point(1, 2);
ColorPoint p3 = new ColorPoint(1, 2, Color.BLUE);

p1.equals(p2); // true
p2.equals(p3); // true
p1.equals(p3); // false  -- not transitive!

You could use Object.getClass in the equals evaluation to only allow a potential equality if the classes are exactly the same, ignoring the inheritance structure, but this violates the Liskov substitution principle.

Any instance of a subclass of Point is also a Point! This implementation breaks that behavior.

// Example which violates the Liskov substitution principle

public boolean equals(Object o) {
    if (o == null || o.getClass() != getClass()) {
        return false;
    Point p = (Point) o;
    return p.x == x && p.y == y;

Instead of inheritance, favor composition over inheritance. Instead of having ColorPoint extend Point, give ColorPoint a private Point field and a public view method that returns the point at the same position as this color point.

// Composition over Inheritance

public class ColorPoint {
    private final Point point;
    private final Color color;

    public Point asPoint() {
        return point;

    public boolean equals(Object o) {
        if (!(o instanceof ColorPoint)) {
            return false;
        ColorPoint cp = (ColorPoint) o;
        return cp.point.equals(point) && cp.color.equals(color);

Do not write an equals method that relies on unreliable resources. Equals methods should only perform deterministic computations on memory-resident objects.

The last requirement, Non-nullity, imposes that objects should never equal null, which doesn't seem hard to miss, but what many people mistake is that o.equals(null) should also NOT throw a NullPointerException.

The process for writing a high-quality equals implementation:

Always override hashCode when you override equals. Don't try to be too clever Don't substitute another type for Object in the equals declaration. Do consider using frameworks that automatically implement equals for you. One example is Google's AutoValue framework.

  1. Use the == operator to check if the argument is a reference to this object. Return true if it is. This is a performance optimization.
  2. Use the instanceof operator to check if the argument is the correct type. This also handles the issue of if the argument is null, because the instanceof always returns false if its left-hand side is null.
  3. Cast the argument to the correct type.
  4. For each "significant" field in the class, check if that field of the argument matches the corresponding field of this object.
    • For primitive fields, use the == operator.
    • For object reference fields, call the equals method recursively.
    • For float and double fields, call or respective
    • For array fields, apply the above on an element-by-element basis. You could also use Arrays.equals
    • For fields that may legitimately contain null, avoid NPEs by using Object.equals.
  5. When finished, do a final check: is it symmetric, transitive, and consistent?

Always override hashCode when you override equals

If you forget to do so, you will violate the general contract for hashCode, which will make your class not work for collections like HashMap and HashSet.

The hashCode contract:

  • Consistency. hashCode must consistently return the same value provided no information used in equals comparisons is modified.
  • Equivalence. If x.equals(y), then x.hashCode() == y.hashCode()
  • Non-equivalence. If !x.equals(y), it is not necessary for x.hashCode() != y.hashCode(), but if it were, it would improve the performance of hash tables.

Forgetting to override hashCode violates the equivalence part of the contract. Two objects may be logically equal, but their hashcodes won't be equal.

A good hash function tends to produce unequal hash codes for unequal instances. Ideally, the function should distributre any reasonable collection of unequal instances uniformly across all int values.

The process for writing a high-quality hashCode implementation

  1. Declare an int variable named result, initialized to the hash code c for the first significant field in your object.
  2. For every remaining significant field f in your object, excluding derived fields and fields not used in the equals comparison:
    1. Compute an int hash code c for f:
      • If the field is primitive, compute Type.hashCode(f), where Type is the boxed primitive of f.
      • If the field is an object reference, recursively invoke hashCode on the field. If a more complex comparison is required, compute a "canonical representation" for the field and invoke hashCode on the canonical representation. If the field is null, use 0.
      • If the field is an array, treat it as if each significant element were a separate field. Compute a hash code for each significant element by applying the above rules recursively, and combine using the following step. If the array has no significant elements, use a constant, preferably not 0. If all elements are significant, use Arrays.hashCode.
    2. Combine the hash code c computed in the previous step into the result as follows: result = 31 * result + c
  3. Return result
  4. Confirm that equal objects have equal hash codes.

Multiplying by 31 above is chosen because it is an odd prime. For objects like String anagrams, it avoids having identical hash codes.

It's possible to write a one-line hashCode method using Objects.hash, but the performance is mediocre. Only use it if you're not in a performance-constrained environment.

@Override public int hashCode() {
    return Objects.hash(lineNum, prefix, areaCode);

When a class is immutable, you may consider caching the hash code in the object instead of calculating it each time. If calculating the hash code is expensive, you may want to lazily initialize it. Lazy initialization has some pitfalls surrounding thread-safety though.

Do not be tempted to exclude significant fields from the hash code computation to improve performance.

Do not provide a detailed specification for the value returned by hashCode for your objects. Clients may end up depending on the value. Not providing this spec allows you the flexibility to change it in the future. Some Java classes like String and Integer specified the hash code which prevents language authors from changing it in the future. This was deemed to be a mistake that should not be repeated.

Always override toString

The exceptions to having to always override toString are:

  • static utility classes
  • enum types

Abstract classes are not an exception, i.e., you should override the toString.

The contract of toString:

A concise but informative representation that is easy for a person to read. It is recommended that all subclasses override this method.

By default it looks like the classname followed by its hash code, i.e., [email protected].

Providing a good toString implemenation makes your class much more pleasant to use and makes systems using the class easier to debug. Even if you never call toString on an object, others may.

When practical, the toString method should return all of the interesting information on the object. When impractical, i.e., it has a large amount of state not conducive to strin grepresentation, toString should return a summary, i.e., Manhattan residential phone directory (1487536 listings) or Thread[main, 5, main].

For value classes, it is recommended that you document a specification for the format of your toString return value. Otherwise, it's up to you. Advantages are that clients can rely on the value and can translate it to/from the string representation. Disadvantages are that you're stuck with it for life. * Whether you decide to specify the format or not, you should clearly document your intentions.

Any value/information contained in the string representation should be programmatically accessible. For example, if the toString for a PhoneNumber class returns "XXX-YYY-ZZZZ", there should be getters for area code, prefix, and number.

  • If you don't, the string format becomes a de facto API (it contains information not accessible otherwise).

Override clone judiciously

Be careful when overriding clone.

You are often better off providing an alternative means of copying (avoiding clone and Cloneable)

You can provide a copy constructor or a copy factory.

// A Copy constructor
public MyClass(MyClass foo) { ... }

// A Copy factory
public static MyClass newInstance(MyClass foo) { ... }

Given all the problems associated with Cloneable, new interfaces should not extend it and new classes should not implement it.

The exception to this rule are arrays. They are best copied with the clone method.

If you must implement Cloneable and clone...

Cloneable is an interface intended to be used as a mixin interface.

  • It's an interface that doesn't define any methods.
  • The clone method is actually already defined as a protected method on Object.
  • Classes that override the Object.clone method but don't implement Cloneable will throw a CloneNotSupportedException.
  • Similarly, classes that override Cloneable but don't override Object.clone will also throw a CloneNotSupportedException.
  • This is a weird setup for Java and should not be emulated in user-defined interfaces.

clone methods are expected to follow a complex, unenforceable, thinly documented protocol, which results in a fragile, dangerous, and extralinguistic mechanism, since it creates objects without calling a constructor.

The clone contract:

  • Creates and returns a copy of the object. "Copy" meaning depends on the class of the object, but usually (but not always) means:
    • x.clone() != x
    • x.clone().getClass() == x.getClass()
    • x.clone().equals(x)
    • By convention, the object returned should be obtained by calling super.clone.
    • By convention, the object returned should be independent of the object being cloned.

If a class's clone method returns an instance that is not obtained by calling super.clone, but by calling a constructor, the compiler won't complain. But if a subclass of that class calls super.clone, then the resulting object will have the wrong class.

If a class that overrides clone is final, then this convention may be ignored. But if it doesn't use super.clone, then it might as well not implement Cloneable, since it doesn't follow the contract.

Immutable classes should never provide a clone method, it encourages wasteful copying.

The clone method functions as a constructor: you must ensure that it does no harm to the original object and that it properly establishes invariants on the clone.

A clone method should never invoke an overridable method on the clone under construction.

Process for writing a well-functioning clone method.

  1. Update the class to implement Cloneable.
  2. Make the return type of clone something more specific than Object (a covariant return type)
  3. Wrap the function body in a try-catch block, because clone has a checked exception for CloneNotSupportedException. But don't declare your method to also throw CloneNotSupportedException.
  4. First, always call super.clone and cast it to the class you want.
  5. If the class fields are entirely primitives, then you're done!
  6. If the class contains some mutable object reference fields, you may need to clone those objects as well.
    • Arrays for example may need to clone each of its elements.
  7. If the class contains some final object reference fields that need to be changed, you're kind of screwed. the Cloneable architecture is incompatible with normal use of final fields referring to object objects, except in cases where the objects may be safely shared between an object and its clone.
    • It may be necessary to remove final modifiers from some fields to make the class cloneable.

Consider implementing Comparable

Unlike Cloneable, Comparable does bring with it a method: compareTo, which is not defined on Object.

Comparable implies that an object has a natural ordering.

Why implement Comparable?

  • The object immediately becomes sortable.
  • The object can interoperate with many generic algorithms that rely on the Comparable interface.

The general contract of compareTo:

  • Throw a ClassCastException if the given object's type prevents it from being compared to this object.
  • Return a negative integer, zero, or a positive integer if this object is less than, equal to, or greater than the given object.
  • Symmetric. signum(x.compareTo(y)) == -signum(y.compareto(x))
  • Transitive. x.compareTo(y) > 0 && y.compareTo(z) > 0 implies x.compareTo(z) > 0
  • x.compareTo(y) == 0 implies x.compareTo(z) == 0 and y.compareTo(z) == 0 for all z.
  • It is strongly recommended that x.compareTo(y) == 0 implies x.equals(y) == true

It is not possible to extend an instantiable class with a new value component while preserving the compareTo contract, unless you are willing to forgo the benefits of OOP.

  • The solution is similar to the equals contract: use composition instead of inheritance.

When writing a compareTo method on a class that has object references, be sure to call compareTo recursively for those object references.

When writing a compareTo method on a class with primitive fields, used the boxed method compare, e.g., to perform the comparison.

If a field does not implement Comparable or you need a nonstandard ordering, using a Comparator instead.

Java 8 comes with a set of comparator construction methods that can be statically imported, i.e.:

private static final Comparator<PhoneNumber> COMPARATOR =
    comparingInt((PhoneNumber pn) -> pn.areaCode)
        .thenComparingInt(pn -> pn.prefix)
        .thenComparingInt(pn -> pn.lineNum);

public int compareto(PhoneNumber pn) {
    return, pn);

DO NOT use the difference between two values for the comparison.

static Comparator<Object> hashCodeOrder = new Comparator<>() {
    public int compare(Object o1, Object o2) {
        return o1.hashCode() - o2.hashCode();

This has non-deterministic due to integer overflow and if the values are floating point, then IEEE 754 can mess things up. Use a static compare method or a comparator construction method instead.

// These are better than the above
static Comparator<Object> hashCodeOrder = new Comparator<>() {
    public int compare(Object o1, Object o2) {
        return, o2.hashCode());

static Comparator<Object> hashCodeOrder = Comparator.comparingInt(o -> o.hashCode());